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A cyber or cybersecurity threat is a malicious act that seeks to damage data, steal data, or disrupt digital life in general. Cyber threats include computer viruses, data breaches, Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, and other attack vectors. (It is the possibility that a particular attack may occur)


an attempt by hackers to damage or destroy a computer network or system. (It is an offensive action)


Computer Security Incident Response Team – Task forces established at national level responsible for the risk prevention, mapping, identification and provision of countermeasures


Cybersecurity is the collection of tools, policies, security concepts, security safeguards, guidelines, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance and technologies that can be used to protect the cyber environment and organization and user’s assets. Organization and user’s assets include connected computing devices, personnel, infrastructure, applications, services, telecommunications systems, and the totality of transmitted and/or stored information in the cyber environment.


Official EU framework for education and training on digital skills and IT competences: 5 training areas for a total of 21 competences

DEMING model

Framework for strategic control of quality: plan > execution > evaluation > reaction and fine-tuning.

EntreComp framework

Official EU framework for education and training on entrepreneurial skills and competences. Three training areas of interest (Ideas and Opportunities, Resources and Into Action) for a total of 15 competences and 60 related sub-competences


Exploitation is a piece of programmed software or script which can allow hackers to take control over a system, exploiting its vulnerabilities. It is written either by security researchers as a proof-of-concept threat or by malicious actors for use in their operations. When used, exploits allow an intruder to remotely access a network and gain elevated privileges, or move deeper into the network.

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Legal description – Creative Commons licensing:
The materials published on the CyberMSME project website are classified as Open Educational Resources' (OER) and can be freely (without permission of their creators): downloaded, used, reused, copied, adapted, and shared by users, with information about the source of their origin.